Monday, August 24, 2020

Problems and Purposes Essay Example for Free

Issues and Purposes Essay Generally English as a second language teachersâ think that its a troublesome errand to execute clasroom the board in an agreeable learning condition. This examination will concentrate on distinguishing the homeroom strategies that ESL instructors use to viably execute clasroom the executives during helpful learning. The scientist utilized both the quantitative and subjective research techniques to show the administrative abilities that the ESL instructors use. The repondents includedâ 28 understudies and their instructor having a place with  the optional evaluation fiveâ school level program. Research shows that the studentâ respondent gathering has more English classesâ than the standard ESL program. Research Information was assembled by talking the understudy respondents and watching them in their typical homeroom condition. To start with, the scientist met the instructor on her picked homeroom methods during her helpful learning class. She actualizes helpful exercises in the study hall environment.â The scientist watched the respondents in 2 separate research periods each comprising of a 75 - minute time period.â The meeting shows that the ESL instructor supported the agreeable learning exercises. This investigation  will appear in detail the privilege techniquesâ to implementâ to guarantee a fruitful helpful learning program.â The examination discoveries would profit the educators who will check out agreeable learning. Presentation: Social and Scientific Context for the Study The social and logical setting for the examination is to decide the best study hall the executives strategy that would prompt an effective helpful learning. The setting will concentrate on the helpful educating of English as a second language homeroom learning condition. Likewise, the investigation will address the adequacy of agreeable learning as a helpful technique for instructing in a study hall condition. Issues and Purposes The issue is to decide the best homeroom the board strategy for an ideal English learning condition. The motivation behind this examination will be to dive into the impact of the agreeable learning strategy in English as a subsequent language.  Another reason for existing is for this exploration to fill in as optional asset material for the instructors, understudies, school heads, network and others to get familiar with the best study hall the executives method. For, the clients of this exploration will realize whether helpful learning is the best study hall learning system. Study Type Defined The examination will concentrate on the utilization of quantitative just as subjective research strategy. The subjective technique utilizes expertly refereed diaries and expertly â€authored books as optional assets. Quantitative technique utilizes meeting and study hall perception to supplement the subjective methodology. The analyst likewise utilizes the essential source strategy by meeting the understudies and educators. Likewise, the specialist will watch a genuine homeroom learning action to approve the study hall interviews and the auxiliary assets. Research Question The exploration question is Can the instructors force discipline in helpful working exercises? Crowd, Purpose, and Plan for the Paper Presented The crowd of this exploration are the instruction related sections. They incorporate the understudies, educators, school directors and network.  The motivation behind this examination is to decide the best method of study hall the executives. This examination centers around discipline in an agreeable study hall learning condition. The arrangement of the paper is to concentrate on the utilization of quantitative just as subjective methodologies explore strategy. The examination utilizes the overview inquiries just as watching a live study hall to decide the best study hall the board strategy. Likewise, this examination will center auxiliary materials to supplement the essential investigation strategy. Another motivation behind this exploration is to decide the one of most ideal methods of showing English as a subsequent language. There are numerous hypotheses on the best way to show a subject in class. One such methodology to show the understudies without thinking about the student’s capacity to gain proficiency with the exercises. This is presently a relic of times gone by. For, the present instructors are school graduates. They have been expertly prepared to apply the best instructing technique that will make the understudy love AIDA. It stands forâ An) expanded Attendance in class, I) Interest to gain proficiency with the current subject, D) Desire to retain the exercises for the afternoon, and An) Attention to the exercise being thought. This explicitly applies to understudies in learning English as a subsequent language. Writing Review 2.1 Classroomâ Management Study hall the executives alludes to the methods utilized by educators to guide their study halls so as to make a fitting domain for successful instructing and learning. Study hall the board models remembers the most interventionist for character to those that are not interventionist in character. James Dobson composed the discipline model of class the board (Corrie, 2001, p. 52).  The fundamental thought of this hypothesis is that understudies who don't adhere to the standards of their boss or educator should rebuffed. (Brownell Walther-Thomas, 2001, p. 31). Another homeroom the executives system is to make a situation helpful for English - learning.  Currently, numerous schools are utilizing the data and communicaton innovations in the study halls. This involves the utilization of PCs and web in showing the current subjects. The PC creates an English - learning condition in light of the fact that the understudies will gain proficiency with the module type exercises at their own pace. Which means, the understudies won't go on to the following part of the homeroom course book until they have finished the investigation of the earlier sections of the reading material (Lim, Pek Chai, 2005). Every section in the computerâ E â€book has an activity which the understudy should answer on the web. When the understudy answers one section practice with a passing evaluation (for instance part 8) the understudy would now be able to go to answer the activities in another part (for instance part 9). This kind of study hall learning is portrayed as errand â€oriented and intelligent (Lim, Teo, Wong, Khine, Chai Divaharan, 2003). Numerous organizations like Pearson PC distributing offers such PC based course readings to schools. The educator can viably execute non - discipline level homeroom discipline. The non - discipline model incorporates offering prizes to understudies who exceed expectations in class. Greatness in class could be in the region of generally number of participation, most noteworthy evaluation in class, best in recitation, best in paper composing, best in math, best in each subject, and so forth. The prizes could be declaring the meriting understudies as the main respect, second respect, best in math, best in Physical Education and others in yearly school acknowledgment exercises. Certainly, the educator can successfully actualize study hall discipline (Traynor, 2003). The educator can adequately actualize discipline level homeroom discipline. To begin with, the educator could rebuff the English learning understudy by giving the person in question a bombing grade for cheating. Or on the other hand, the educator can suspend the understudy for slight bad conduct like yelling indecent words at their cohorts unendingly. Likewise, the educator can Expel the understudy for exceptionally awful study hall conduct like slapping their schoolmate or pummeling a seat on his colleague during the English learning class.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Certificado para demostrar ciudadanía estadounidense

Certificado para demostrar ciudadanã ­a estadounidense El certificado de ciudadanã ­a estadounidense es un documento emitido por el gobierno de Estados Unidos que sirve para acreditar que una persona tiene la nacionalidad estadounidense. Su nombre en inglã ©s es Certificate of Citizenship. Certificado de ciudadanã ­a estadounidense El certificado de ciudadanã ­a es un documento que se puede utilizar para acreditar la nacionalidad de EE.UU. en los siguientes casos:Estadounidenses nacidos en otro paã ­s que adquieren la nacionalidad a travã ©s de padre/madre en momento de nacimientoNià ±os extranjeros adoptados por estadounidensesMenores de 18 aã ±os nacidos fuera de EE.UU. que se convierten en ciudadanos de forma derivada cuando uno de los padres se naturaliza y se cumplen todos los requisitos.Casos especiales para muchachos menores de 18 aã ±os a fecha de 27 de febrero de 2001 y se encontraban en EE.UU. como residentes permanentes.En todos los dems casos no incluidos en los tres anteriores los ciudadanos estadounidenses pueden acreditar su condiciã ³n por medio de otros documentos.  ¿Quià ©nes pueden solicitar el Certificado de ciudadanã ­a? Pueden solicitar este certificaciã ³n las personas que recaen en una de las categorã ­as siguientes: En preliminary lugar, las personas que nacen en otro paã ­s y child ciudadanos americanos a travã ©s de padre o madre desde el momento de su nacimiento. Cabe destacar que la ley real contempla requisitos diferentes si el begetter americano es el padre o la madre o si child solteros o casados. La ley real aplica a las personas nacidas despuã ©s del 17 de noviembre de 1986. Para las nacidas con anterioridad an esa fecha debern comprobar la ley que se aplicaba en el momento de su nacimiento. En segundo lugar, los nacidos fuera de Estados Unidos y que adquieren la ciudadanã ­a de forma derivada por sus padres en algã ºn momento despuã ©s de su nacimiento y bets de cumplir los 18 aã ±os de edad. Roughage que tener en cuenta que si el que seâ naturaliza es el padre,â los hijos han de ser legã ­timos o ser legitimados risks de que los menores cumplan los 16 aã ±os y adems tienen que vivir con el padre que los legitima. Adems, es requisito imprescindible que los menores tengan su propia tarjeta de residencia permanente y residan habitualmente en EE.UU. con el padre o la madre que se naturaliza. En otras palabras, si el menor de 18 aã ±os dwell fuera de los EE.UU. o, residiendo en el paã ­s, no tiene su propia green card, no adquiere de forma automtica la nacionalidad estadounidense cuando su padre o madre se naturaliza. Tampoco la adquiere si no convive con el begetter que se naturaliza. En tercer lugar, losâ adoptados por un ciudadano estadounidense. Los nacidos fuera de Estados Unidos que child adoptados por un ciudadanoâ y que entran al paã ­s como un IR-3 adquieren automticamente la ciudadanã ­a. En el caso de que la adopciã ³n no fuera last, deber esperar a que à ©sta se produzca. Estas personas tambiã ©n pueden acreditar su nueva nacionalidad con este certificado. Y en cuarto lugar, los casos especiales de los extranjeros que eran menores de 18 aã ±os bets del 27 de febrero de 2001 y que vivã ­an en Estados Unidos como residentes permanentes legales pueden tambiã ©n solicitar un certificado de ciudadanã ­a si: Bets de esa fecha ambos padres se naturalizarono en el caso de viudedad lo hizo el padre sobrevivienteo en los casos de separaciã ³n o divorcio o semejantes solo uno de los padres tenã ­a la guardia y custodia sobre el menor y à ©ste es el forebear que se naturalizã ³. Los ciudadanos estadounidenses no incluidos en los casos anteriormente expuestos pueden acreditar su nacionalidad mediante otros documentos como, por ejemplo, el pasaporte de EE.UU., el certificado de nacimiento o el de naturalizaciã ³n, el Reporte Consular de Nacimiento en el Exterior, and so on. Trmites para pedir el certificado de ciudadanã ­a Como regla general y salvo la excepciã ³n que se especifica en este artã ­culo ms abajo, debe llenarse laâ planilla a rellenar es la N-600â para solicitar el certificado de ciudadanã ­a. Es importante resaltar que se puede completar esta planilla en cualquier momento, incluso despuã ©s de cumplir los 18 aã ±os.â Lo importante es que los requisitos se cumplã ­an todos bets de cumplir esos aã ±os. Si se solicita el certificado de ciudadanã ­a para un menor, puede hacerlo a su nombre el padre o madre o guardin lawful que tenga la guardia y custodia legitimate y fã ­sica del niã ±o o niã ±a. No pueden rellenar la planilla N-600 las personas que se encuentren en una de las siguientes situaciones: los hijastros de ciudadanos americanos, para los que sã ­ se puede solicitar una tarjeta de residencia.Tampoco pueden solicitar este certificado los hijos no reconocidos como legã ­timos por su padre ciudadano bets de cumplir los 16 aã ±os de edad. Ni las personas que han llenado previamente este formulario y el USCIS ya se ha pronunciado. Asimismo tener en cuenta que en el caso de hijos de ciudadanos que residen habitualmente fuera de los Estados Unidos el formulario a llenar es el N-600K. Adems,tanto si corresponde el N-600 como el N-600K debe incluirse una serie de documentaciã ³n para acreditar la ciudadanã ­a y la causa por la que se adquiriã ³. Verificar el listado de todos la papelerã ­a que es necesaria y prestar atenciã ³n ya que los requisitos varã ­an segã ºn la causa por la que se alega que se es ciudadano. El arancel a pagar es de $1.170 y es free para miembro en activo o veteranos del Ejã ©rcito. Se puede pagar mediante cash request o check pagadero al U.S. Division of Homeland Security. Nunca utilizar abreviaciones y se deben observar todas las reglas necesarias para completar las planillas de inmigraciã ³n. Por à ºltimo, el formulario firmado y la documentaciã ³n adjunta debe enviarse por correo ordinario a: USCISP.O.Box 20100Phoenix, AZ 85036 Sin ban, si se utiliza el servicio de correo exprã ©s, la direcciã ³n es la siguiente: USCISAttn: Form N-6001820 E. Skyharbor Circle SSuite 100Phoenix, AZ 85034 En la actualidad es posible llenar este formulario online en la pgina oficial de USCIS. Quã © hacer si el certificado de ciudadanã ­a se extravã ­a, se daã ±a o es robado En estos casos se puede solicitar uno de reemplazo. Para ello completar el formulario N-565 y enviarlo al USCIS con la documentaciã ³n de apoyo y el pago de la cuota correspondiente. Tips sobre la ciudadanã ­a estadounidense La ciudadanã ­a History of the U.S brinda, sin duda, excelentes ventajas e incluso derechos ms importantes que ser simplemente residente permanente. Pero no olvidar que tambiã ©n conlleva obligaciones, como por ejemplo el Servicio Selectivo para el caso de varones jã ³venes.â Por à ºltimo, aunque Estados Unidos admite las situaciones de doble nacionalidad, informarse sobre las causas que pueden dar lugar a que se pierda la ciudadanã ­a o que à ©sta pueda ser revocada. Este es un artã ­culo informativo. No es asesorã ­a lawful para ningã ºn caso concreto.

Friday, July 24, 2020

Space Tourisem Example

Space Tourisem Example Space Tourisem â€" Essay Example > Introduction To be able to define the word space tourism, the definitions of the terms space and tourism are taken into consideration. According to studies, the term space is used to refer to the empty outer space in the earth’s atmosphere. This is the space in which the planets as well as the stars are found. It is accepted that the space begins at a hundred kilometres from the earth’s surface despite the fact that the frontier that exists between the space and the atmosphere is not clearly defined. Tourism on the other hand, based on the tourism provider oriented definition is the provision of services for instance entertainment, places to stay as well as transport. Based on the client-oriented definition, tourism is the doing of that which gives one the opportunity to experience in reality the pleasures, which they have always dreamt of. Therefore, space tourism is the provision of services to humans’ in order for them to be able to access as well as experience space for recreation and adventure. Besides, space tourist is a term used to refer to an individual who travels to experience space for recreation and adventure. This person is also referred to as space passenger, space client or space traveller. Virgin Galactic is a company that is established as well as owned by Richard Branson’s Virgin Group, Angus, 2010. The company was given the responsibility of taking up the challenge of ensuring that they make private space travel accessible to all as well as making the first commercial space line for the universe. Virgin is set to operate as well as own the privately built space ships undergoing construction but based on the history making space ship one craft (Angus, 2010). It is anticipated that the spaceships will allow for the first orbital space travel in history at an affordable price. In addition, the space travel will give one an opportunity of being among the first private astronauts (Angus, 2010). This paper seeks to evaluate whether th e venture is a start for a new industry for the Virgin Galactic as well as whether it is based on a sound business model. Moreover, it will also evaluate whether the set objectives are realizable in the 21st century. Besides, the obstacles and the technical issues will be discussed. In conclusion, the paper will entail political issues that will face Virgin Galactic. Is the commencement of commercial flights to the edge of space in 2010 a start of a new industry? The commencement of commercial flights to the edge of space in 2010 by Virgin Galactic is with no doubts the start of a new industry (Angus, 2010). This is because Virgin Atlantic will give the tourists the groundbreaking chance the first ever space tourist in history. The company introduces an important experience to the industry that comes from the years of rail operations as well as safe airline (Angus, 2010). Moreover, it has ensured proper funding through committing the right resources into the venture. In addition t hey will operate as well as be in possession of its own privately built spaceships which have been modelled on the significant history making spaceship one (Angus, 2010). Virgin Galactic huge experience in the fields of adventure, luxury travel, as well as aviation and innovative design that is combined with the unique technology that was developed by Burt Rutan is meant to ensure a memorable experience, one that is not familiar to humankind (Angus, 2010). In addition Virgin aims at ensuring that the comfort of its tourists up until they are able to leave the spaceport with a complete document with full records regarding the whole experience as well as their astronaut wings.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Strategic Analysis and Valuation of De La Rue - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 16 Words: 4756 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? De  La  Rue Plc dates its origination way back to 1821 when its founder Thomas de la Rue started it as a stationer and printer on a small scale in the UK. Since then the company has diversified geographically and has spread its footprints across 24 countries today employing approximately 4000 people all over the world. De La Rue is rated as the worlds largest commercial security printer and papermaker, which is involved in producing over one hundred and fifty national currencies along with a wide gamut of security documents like fiscal stamps, passports, authentication labels to name a few. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Strategic Analysis and Valuation of De La Rue" essay for you Create order Besides this, it is also the leading provider of equipment to sort cash and is also a reputed software solution provider to central banks worldwide that helps to minimize the total cost of handling cash. It has also ventured into new innovations and technologies in passport issuing schemes, drivers license and national identification schemes. De  La  Rue is a member of the FTSE 250 and its ordinary shares have been listed with the UK Listing Authority and are trading  on the market on the London Stock Exchange under the symbol DLAR. Its current market capitalization stands at $811.57 million. 2. Strategic Implications of the Takeover Deal Recently De La Rue has been witnessing a series of production problems along with the resignation of its chief executive James Hussey which has taken a toll on its profits to the tune of GBP 35 million. This crisis-hit company has been the subject of takeover in recent times because of its leading position in several growth markets that have high barriers to entry. Its lucrative business potential coupled with its well established business globally makes it a good take-over candidate. Oberthur, a French company, has expressed interest to take over the company in an all cash offer which it has valued at GBP 896 million by offering 905 pence per share. 3. Analysis of the Recent Financial Performance of De La Rue Plc 3.1 Summarizing Ratios Takeover deals can be broadly categorized under two heads (Jostarndt, 2007): Financial, and Strategic. While the intent of financial deals is to turn around the loss-making businesses in a profitable manner and command premiums on the time of exit, strategic buyers aim to integrate the businesses with its existing operations to reap the benefits of economies of scale and scope. In the absence of the relevant details, it has been assumed that the buyers have a strategic outlook for the deal and accordingly the analysis has been carried out. Strategic buyers are more concerned about the operating strengths of the business rather than focusing on financial measures of profitability like return on equity, dividend payout ratio which are of primary concern to the retail investor. Thus, while analyzing the performance of De La Rue, emphasis has been laid on the sales figures and turnover ratios along with the asset utilization practices prevailing at the target company. Its l everage has also been analyzed to gain an understanding of the financial risks of the company. The ratios available at Reuters (2011) have been used for the purposes of the above analyses and have been comprehensively summarized underneath: Table 1: Key Financial Measures from the perspective of a Strategic buyer Ratio De La Rue Plc Industry Sector Asset Efficiency Ratios: Receivable Turnover ratio (times) 5.72 4.27 5.91 Inventory Turnover Ratio (times) NA 12 15 Asset Turnover Ratio (times) 1.13 0.97 0.57 Average Return on Assets (%) 23.02 1.80 2.89 Operating Margin (%) 24.69 3.12 8.15 Capital Structure Ratios: Quick Ratio 0.44 1.43 1.27 Current Ratio 0.68 1.70 1.58 Long Term Debt to Equity Ratio 4.85 19.32 54.94 Total Debt to Equity Ratio 197.58 26.59 73.12 The inputs of ratio analysis are the financial statements of the company and it is essential that the input should be reliable to get consistent output. Thus it is a general practice to use audited financial statements to avoid confusions about its integrity. Hence, for the purposes of analysis, the year ended March, 2010 has been considered for computing the asset efficiency ratios. The capital structure at the latest date of takeover should be considered and hence the un-audited interim results have been considered to compute the leverage and solvency ratios. 3.2 Analysis of the Assets Efficiency Earning Power Asset efficiency ratios throw light on the turnover that can be generated by deploying the assets in an efficient and effective manner. Since the takeover deal in this case aims to acquire control of the target company, it should be primarily interested in how good the assets of the target are because the major purchase consideration paid would be for acquiring these assets. Asset turnover ratios describe the number of times of it; the particular asset(s) can generate sales. Thus while the asset turnover ratio describes the number of times of the total assets that the sales have been generated, debtors turnover ratio reveal the quality of the current asset debtors that the target has on its balance sheet. A large debtor base with a large proportion of bad and doubtful debts is of less relevance than a small debtor base of high and recoverable quality. A high debtor turnover ratio indicates that the debt collection procedure is sound and hence the incidence of bad debts should be low. Ratios, on a stand-alone basis, are of little relevance as the absolute figures do not convey much information. It is essential to compare them with industry and sector benchmarks to gain a complete insight in its relative positioning in the industry and peer group. Hence accordingly, the benchmark ratios have been also considered. A look at the total asset turnover ratio and debtor turnover ratio show that both these ratios were better for De La Rue than the industry or the sector. The asset turnover ratio for the company De La Rue Plc was almost double than the sector which indicates that the productive power of assets or the revenue generating capacity of the assets of De La Rue is quite good and hence they can be considered to be worth taking over. Even if we look at the earning power of the assets as indicated by operating margin and the return on assets, De La Rue scores well above its industry and sector benchmarks. The return on assets of the company is almost 12 times the industry standard and nearly 8 times the sector benchmark. The operating margin for De La Rue is also nearly 8 times and 3 times greater than the industry and sector benchmark respectively. The following graph indicates the earning potential and the revenue-generating capacity of the assets of De La Rue Plc vis-à  -vis the benchmarks. It is clear that De La Rue Plc scores above average on all the parameters on a consolidated basis when compared with its peers or the industry and hence it can be deduced that it has a productive asset base which can be effectively managed to reap the benefits of the takeover deal. Figure 1: Comparing the revenue-generating and earning potential of the assets of De La Rue Plc with the industry and sector benchmarks 3.3 Capital Structure Analysis Another arena worth considering in a takeover deal is the financial risk of the company. Takeover deals can be undertaken to achieve financial synergy benefits in the form of reduced cost of capital. It is essential to consider the debt burden of the target company which would be taken over by the acquirer. De La Rue Plcs short term liquidity position as indicated by its current ratio and quick ratio are well below the benchmark standards. Its quick ratio is almost a third of the industry standard and current ratio is also a meager 40% of the industry standard. The situation seems to be a bit less bad when compared with the sector benchmark but still it falls very short of what the prevailing benchmarks have been. A look at the solvency ratios narrates a different story however. Its leverage as implied by the long term debt to equity ratio is way below the standards. It is about 25% and 9% of the industry and sector benchmarks respectively which indicate that the threat of in solvency is low when compared with the peers. Thus it appears to be a safe bet. However, the total debt to equity ratio is quite high for De La Rue, almost 8 times and 2.5 times the industry and sector benchmark respectively. This mismatch indicates that it has substantial liabilities which need to be retired in the short term period and hence the acquirer should determine the consideration payable accordingly. Overall, though the long term financial prospects do not appear bleak, the short term financial stability might command a great amount of resources. 4. Valuation of De La Rue Plc 4.1 The Valuation Process The above cross sectional analysis of De La Rue Plc clearly indicates that its asset base is of good quality and hence attracts significant interest from strategic buyers. However the success of any takeover deal lies in the valuation. Paying a low value may cause the deal to be shelved, while offering a higher price can lead to the syndrome popularly known as Winners curse, wherein the acquirer fails to reap the benefits of the takeover deal due to excessive premium paid. It is essential to determine a fair value of the target. The valuation process is a highly subjective process and calls for careful planning. The fair value is not computed using a single method but by computing the weighted average of the values obtained from a range of methods. The weights are placed according to the relevance of the method for the purpose with which the valuation is done. The valuation methods have been broadly categorized under two heads: Fundamental Valuation, Relative Valuation. Both the methods have been used here to compute the fair value of the purchase consideration that should be paid to the shareholders of De La Rue Plc. 4.2 Fundamental Valuation Fundamental Valuation or Intrinsic Valuation, as it is commonly known, is based on the premise that the fair value of any company can be deduced by discounting the future stream of returns accruing from the company (Pinto et al, 2010). Returns can be either in the form of dividends or cash flows. Since the takeover deal is carried out with the intent to gain control over the operations of the company, the free cash flow approach is being implemented to value the firms equity. Computing the Free Cash Flow of the Enterprise Free Cash Flow to the firm refers to the cash flows that accrue to the stockholders and bondholders after all the capital expenditure requirements and working capital needs have been met. Cash flows are lesser subject to manipulation than the earnings and are hence of primary interest to the acquirer. FCFF can be computed as the net cash flow from operations adjusted for after tax interest payments and capital spending. The FCFF of De La Rue Plc as on March 27, 2010 has been computed under: Amount (GBP million) Net CFO 95.1 Interest 5.4 Tax Rate 13.46% Add: After-tax Interest 4.67 Less: Capital Spending 33.1 FCFF 66.67 Determining the Short Term Sustainable Growth Rates The consensus estimate for the long term growth rate of both the capital spending and the revenue of the business has been estimated at around 10.5% (Reuters, 2011) and accordingly, this assumption has been used for valuation purposes. But the sustainability of a growth rate greater than the growth of the industry is questionable in the long run. De La Rue Plc is a matured firm and hence it would grow indefinitely in the long run at a rate no more than the growth of the industry. Hence the sustainable long term growth rate has been assumed to be 5%. However, the time value of money needs to be factored in and accordingly, the indefinite cash flows need to be discounted at the cost of capital. Computing The Weighted Average Cost of Capital Cost of Capital refers to the minimum return the business must provide to its financers. It is calculated as the weighted average of the cost of equity and after tax cost of debt. The cost of equity here has been computed using the Capital Asset Pricing Model, as shown below: Risk-free return (%) 3.70 Beta 0.11 Market Return (FTSE 250)(%) 20.14 Cost of Equity (%) 5.51 The yield on 10 year bond issued by the UK government has been used as a proxy for the risk free rate (Bloomberg, 2011) while the market return is assumed to be the return earned on investment in FTSE 250. To compute the cost of equity, there are several other approaches available. Hence, to determine the intrinsic cost of equity, the Gordons Growth Model has been applied and accordingly the required rate or return has been computed as shown: Expected Dividend per share 46.74 p Current Market Price 819.5 p Long-term growth 10.50% Cost of Equity 16.20% Both the m ethods have yielded significantly different values and hence the weighted average is used with 80% weight being assigned to the latter. Thus the cost of equity is 14.06%. The cost of debt has been computed by dividing the post-tax interest with the amount of long term debt and is equal to 10.27%. The long term debt equity ratio of 4.85 implies that the capital structure is made up of 82.91% debt and 17.09% equity. Thus the weighted average cost of capital has been computed as shown: % of debt 82.91 % of equity 17.09 Cost of debt in % 10.27 Cost of equity in % 14.06 Weighted Average Cost of Capital (%) 10.91 Valuing the firm using the Free Cash Flow Net Present Value Approach Applying the Free Cash Flow to Firm Valuation approach, we estimate the value of the firm which can be computed by applying the formula: Firm Value = FCFF (1+ Growth rate)/(Cost of capital-Sustainable growth rate) Inputting the above calculated parameters in the equation, the value of the firm is GBP 1245.45 million. In the absence of information regarding the market value of debt, the book value of debt has been deducted to determine the value of equity which stands at GBP 841.95 million and thus the amount to be paid on a per share basis stands at 856 pence. Valuing the firm using the Rappaports approach Alfred Rappaport introduced a new concept of deriving shareholder value. As per Rappaport, shareholder value is driven primarily by the understated seven factors: Sales Revenue Operating Margin Tax Rate Incremental Capital Expenditure Investment in Working Capital Weighted Average Cost of Capital Planning Horizon or the Competitive Advantage Period Rappaport states that the total economic value of any business can be computed as the  sum of the values of its debt and equity.   Thus, shareholder value  can be deduced as  the corporations value minus the value of the debt, wherein the corporate value is equal to the sum of its future cash flows that are discounted at the weighted-average cost of capital (WACC). The free cash flows equal the present value of all of the operating  cash flows (the net of cash inflows outflows) during the  planning horizon and the  terminal value. The terminal value is computed as the present value of the businesses estimated value beyond the forecast period. It can be expressed as: Enterprise Value = Present Value of Net Operating Cash Flows during the planning horizon + Terminal Value + Value of marketable securities. The FCFF has been computed above as GBP 66.67 million. While the long term growth rate as per analysts consensus is 10.5%, the sustainable growth rate is 5%, the growth rate of the entire industry. The competitive advantage period in the current scenario seems to be no greater than 4 years as per analysts consensus and accordingly, that estimate has been used here. The weighted average cost of capital has been computed above to be 10.91%. These estimates have been used to value the firm as shown below:  Rappaports Approach Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 FCFF 73.67 81.41 89.96 99.40 Present Value of FCFF 66.43 66.18 65.92 65.67 Sum of Operating Cash Flows during Planning Horizon 264.20 Terminal Value 1763.06 Present Value of Terminal Value 1164.74 Value of Marketable Securities 44.5 Firm Value 1473.43 Equity Value 1069.93 Per Share Value (GBP) 10.87 Under this approach, the per share vale comes close to 1087 pence which is quite higher than the one obtained through the other NPV approach. Thus it is advisable to consider other methods also. Limitations of Fundamental Valuation Approach The estimates obtained above are subject to several limitations, the primary being the reliability and consistency of the input parameters. Several assumptions have been made regarding the long term growth rate of the company, its cost of equity, etc. Past performance can provide some insight, but cannot be deemed to be sufficiently reliable to predict the future. But this model relies on past performance to estimate future performance, which is a major drawback. Moreover, the achievability and sustainability of the estimates is also questionable. This model also ignores the synergy benefits that accrue form the deal and is overly simplistic. It also assumes that the growth rate would be constant in perpetuity which is rarely the case. Hence, other models need to be applied to determine the fair value of consideration payable. 4.3 Relative Valuation This method is based on the law of one price. The principle that similar securities should be equally priced is the foundation of this approach. Under this approach, the price multiples of the industry and peer group are deemed to be the best indicator of the worth of the stock and they are correspondingly multiplied with the measure to determine the fair value of the security. It assumes that markets are efficient and prices all securities efficiently. Hence the valuation should be arrived at using the market consensus. There are several price multiples that are applied in this approach but here the focus is limited to the following four multiples (DePamphilis, 2009): Price to Earning Multiple, Price to Sales Multiple, Price to Free Cash Flow Multiple, and Price to Book Value Multiple. The weighted average of the price obtained through the above approaches is calculated to arrive at the fair price. All the multiples are not weighted equally, but a larger weight is a pplied to P/S multiple and P/FCF multiple because in the process of acquiring control, the acquirer stands to gain by turning sales and free cash flows in an efficient manner. Moreover these two measures are less subject to manipulation than earnings which is normally believed to be window-dressed. The Price-Earning Multiple Approach The PE approach is the most commonly used approach in stock valuation because of its simplicity and easily accessible information. The mean ratio for the trailing twelve months in the industry has been 26.12 (Reuters), while the reported earnings per share were 71 pence. Accordingly, the value of share has been computed as 1854.52 pence. But for valuing takeover targets, this method is given less weightage as the earnings can be manipulated and the acquirer is always more interested in the turnover of the target which it can effectively convert into profits. Thus we need to use a combination of methods. The Net Asset Valuation Approach Herein, the book value per share is used to value the equity of De La Rue plc as shown in the adjoining table. The price per share under the different methods of relative valuation have been computed and shown under: Table 2: Relative Valuation Price Multiple of Sector (Source: Reuters) Per Share Measure of De La Rue Plc (p) Per Share Value (p) Weight Assigned Per Share Value-Weighted (p) Sales 1.71 570.22 975.08 0.4 390.03 Free Cash Flow 17.86 67.75 1210.09 0.4 484.04 Book Value 1.37 9.65 13.23 0.05 0.66 Earnings 26.12 71.00 1854.52 0.15 278.18 Total 1152.91 Thus the relative valuation approach provides a per share value of 1152.91 pence valuing the company at a price of GBP 1134.46 million. Limitations of Relative Valuation Approach This approach is also widely subject to criticisms. It is based on the premise that markets are efficient which does not hold good in reality. It is not necessary that the benchmarks are always aptly priced. They may be over priced in boom periods and under priced in the depression periods which affects the valuation of the company as their over/under valuation is reflected in the fair value of the target too. Moreover, it also ignores synergy benefits and is based on the past performance (the trailing multiples) which provides an insight on the future performance but do not serve as a good proxy for it. Besides this, it is essential to cover the entire cycle of a business rather than just a year. Despite of all these shortcomings, both the methods provide a starting point for deal valuation. 4.4 Final Valuation While the fundamental valuation assigns a value of 856 pence per share, relative valuation assigns a value of 1152.91 pence. If we average the two, the per share value comes close to 1002 pence. Hence the bid can be made accordingly. Since the bid of 905 pence per share has already been rejected, it can bid more than that to the limit of 1002 pence. If the group can estimate the synergy benefits accruing from the deal, the present value can also be computed and a portion added to the bid offer to share the gains of the takeover with the shareholders of De La Rue Plc. 5. Analysis of the Stock Market Reactions The stock price of De La Rue Plc rose from 647.5 pence to 861 pence, implying a gain of around 33% the very same day. This spurt in prices can be explained by several theories, but two have been discussed here: 5.1 Stock Market Efficiency Theory Financial market is a broad market that provides for the exchange of both capital and credit. It can be broadly segregated into  money markets  and the  capital markets. Money market refers to the market of short-term debt securities. Such securities are typically safe and highly liquid in nature. On the other hand, capital market refers to the market which provides for the transaction of long-term debt and securities. Every transaction involves the exchange of some consideration, and to determine the amount of this consideration, it is essential to correctly value the securities to conduct a fair transaction. Hence it is essential that the markets are efficient. By Market efficiency, we mean that the current price of the security should include all the values of publicly available information about the particular security. The basic idea that underlies market efficiency is that the existence of competition drives all information about a security into its pr ice quickly. The maximum price that a prudent investor would be willing to pay for the financial security is determined by the current value of all the future cash flows that are discounted at a slightly higher rate so as to compensate for the riskiness and uncertainty in the future cash flow projections. Thus, investors are actually trading information in the form of commodity in the financial markets for the expected stream of future cash flows along with information about the level of uncertainty. Efficient market  refers to the state of the market when new information is speedily incorporated in the price to make the price become information. Put simply, the current market price of a stock reflects all the available information about it. Thus the current market price in the financial market can be regarded as the best-unbiased estimate that can be assigned to the value of the particular investment. Here in our case, De La Rue Plc shareholders would stand to ben efit if the takeover attempt is successful, as they would stand to gain a higher margin on their investment than they could get by simply trading on the market exchange. Thus, as per this theory, the stock price of De La Rue Plc should provide an indication of this possibility and it should not be possible for traders to beat the market by arbitraging on the shares of De La Rue Plc. The  Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH), as the theory is popularly known, has been ranked as an important cornerstone of modern financial economics. Fama (1970) laid the foundation of the theory and defined the term efficient market as a market in which the security prices completely reflect all the available information about it. The market is said to be efficient if the reaction of the market prices to the newly obtained information is instantaneous and more importantly unbiased.  Thus it undermines the fact that no old information can be used to predict the future price movements, a m ajor blow to the technical analysts. Consequently, there are three versions of EMH which have been distinguished depending on the level of information available. The  weak form of the Efficient Market Hypothesis states that the current asset prices have already incorporated historical price and volume information. In other words, the information that is contained in the historical sequence of values of a particular security is completely reflected in its current market price. This form is labeled as the weak form because it is based on security prices that are the most easily accessible and publicly available piece of information. The theory asserts that no one would be in a capacity to outperform the market just by using something which everybody else in the market knows. However there are several financial researchers who have been studying the sequence of historical stock prices along with the data on trading volume so as to generate profit. This methodology, popul arly called technical analysis, is asserted by this form of EMH as insignificant for the prediction of the future price changes. The  second form of EMH the semi strong form, stipulates that the entire gamut of publicly available information about a security is already incorporated in the asset prices in a similar fashion. In another words, all of the publicly available information about a security is comprehensively reflected in its prevailing market price. Here, the public information stated covers both the past prices and the data that is reported in the companys announcements, its financial statements, prevailing economic factors to name a few. It also implies, like the weak form, that no one can outperform the market simply by using something that is a known fact of everyone else. This also indicates that a particular companys financial results are of no use in the process of forecasting the future price movements of the stock so as to secure higher investment return s. The  strong form of EMH, the final form,  states that all the insider information or the private information is also quickly incorporated by the market in the prices of the security and hence cannot be exploited to gain abnormal trading profits. Put simply, it implies that all information, public and private, is fully consolidated in the securitys prevailing market price. Thus, the companys management or the insiders too cannot make supernormal gains from the inside information which they hold as per this thesis. The insiders cannot take the undue advantage to profit from the private information such as a take over or an acquisition decision that has been taken minutes ago. The underlying rationale behind this is to support the fact that the market predicts future developments and accordingly incorporates that information in the stock price in an objective and more informative manner than the insiders. There have been several extensions to this work, the popul ar one being the random walk model, which also asserts the notion that the stock market cannot be beaten on a consistent basis, and it also rules out the possibility of arbitrage. Thus, in a nutshell, the efficiency theory states that the price of a particular asset on the exchange includes the value of all publicly available information about that particular underlying asset (Fama, 1970). De La Rue Plc had been grappling under serious production issues which had taken a toll on its share price. But the news of a possible takeover has generated interest in the stock. Yet the deal is not confirmed and there also exists the probability of the deal fading off. Thus accordingly, the price did not rise to match to the bid offer but was a bit low factoring the possibility of failure. This reaction shows that the efficiency theory holds good to some extent in practice. 5.2 Merger Acquisition Theory of Target Share Price Movements In takeover deals, the shareholders of the target can be compensated by two means cash or stock or a combination of both. Since the group is interested in an all cash offer, it implies that the shareholders of the target wont benefit from the long run synergistic benefits of the deal since after the takeover they would cease to exist as shareholders of the combined entity. Hence the consideration payable on the spot would be higher than the actual value of the target to proportionately share the gains from the deal with the target shareholders. Moreover, all cash offer also implies the confidence of the acquiring firms management in the target company and accordingly the targets shareholders would command a premium price for the same. Thus the stocks value increased by 33% on a single day, in anticipation of the deal, after factoring the probability of a possible failure.

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Pascal s Wager And The Existence Of God - 1649 Words

This paper will analyze Pascal’s wager, which demonstrates that even without empirical evidence of a God, wagering for the existence of God will maximize our happiness. Through his wager, one can use simple reasoning to understand that believing in a God which you cannot see may still be the most logical option to live your life. Pascal states that because there is no evidence that a God exists, nor is there any evidence that no God exists, it is entirely possible that a God exists. Wagering for the existence of an almighty God will either bring you eternal life and happiness, or it simply will not affect you. However, if one were to wager against the existence of a God, they would never be able to experience eternal happiness regardless if they were right or wrong. Some may argue that Pascal’s wager does not take into account the fact that different religions believe in different Gods. The God that a follower believes may not be the â€Å"true† God who grants e ternal life and happiness. Therefore, the time spent practicing the religion of their God would have been wasted. These followers could have been maximizing their happiness by devoting their time to other activities instead. However, I argue that Pascal’s argument is still persuasive as there is still a chance that a God exists, albeit the chances of reaching eternal happiness would be drastically lower considering this new variable. Those who do not believe in the existence of a God will be punished for their lack ofShow MoreRelatedThe Existence Of God By Pascal s Wager Essay1597 Words   |  7 Pagesthe most well known theories about the existence of God is Pascal’s Wager. Upon first look, this theory seems fairly sound, even if not overly convincing. Under more thorough inspection, however, it quickly becomes clear the theory is rather counter productive. Not only does the wager fail to prove the existence of God or anything about the true nature of God, it also fails to prove what it was created to prove. Aside from simply being ineffective, Pascal’s Wager also leads to serious doubts about theRead MoreSummary Of Blaise Pascal s The Wager 1286 Words   |  6 PagesBlaise Pascal’s famous work, â€Å"the Wager,† utilizes about the concept of pragmatic justification in the terms of deciding whether or not to believe in God. In response to this, William Clifford publishes â€Å"The Ethics of Belief† countering Pascal’s view. Neither Pascal or Clifford’s views are perfect, but they are both worth examining. Clifford s universal rejection of pragmatic justification is ultimately too harsh on Pascal’s Wager. Pascal utilizes reason to come to the conclusion whether or notRead MorePascal, The Founder Of The Pascal s Wager899 Words   |  4 PagesBlaise Pascal was the founder of the Pascal’s Wager. Pascal was a French philosopher, an inventor, a mathematician, a scientist and a theologian. Pascal extended a reason to believe in God, even though other people had beliefs that God is not real and his existence is not inconceivable. The Pascal’s Wager was a second-person communication. It showed that Pascal conceptualizes an individual forced to decide between the belief in God and not to believe in him. An example of what Pascal would demonstrateRead MoreWilliam James s Will For Believe1171 Words   |  5 Pages  Be sure to answer all in complete sentences. 1. Explain William James’s Will to Believe. There are three elements to observe when dealing with a hypothesis. Jame s noted we must ask is our hypothesis dead or living, forced or avoidable, momentous. What the Will to Believe is advocating is one can morally or rationally believe in God or something, even if there is not sufficient intellectual evidence for such a belief. We answer the questions which are outlined on page 292 over the three pointsRead MoreThe Roman Catholic Church Responded Treatment1645 Words   |  7 Pagesdeduction rather than empirical induction, stressed national speculation and reflection. Descartes believed that he could rationally prove the existence of God. His ideas impacted the way the modern world would come to look at knowledge and truth, this created a kind of dualism. Blaise Pascal, 1623-1662, he was French mathematician and philosopher. Pascal was the first to use probability theory, developed the fundamentals of calculus, challenged whether human reason could really address life’s greatestRead MoreQuestions On Pascal s Wager1833 Words   |  8 PagesPascal’s Wager is often considered one of philosophies weakest religious arguments to date. Pascal invents a wager to persuade the one who questions God into attending church, following the Ten Commandments, and following any other traditions in the Catholi c Church. The wager is, if a person is a believer and after departing from this earth they find that they are correct, then their rewards are infinite. They will receive eternal life and a relationship with God in heaven. On the other hand if aRead MoreThe Ethics Of Belief By Clifford. Pascal1776 Words   |  8 Pagesarrive at beliefs. William James, however, disapproves Clifford. Pascal has a different view on belief formation where he argues that reasons for believing and failing to believe in God are indecisive. The three philosophers have varied views on how beliefs are formed. This essay discusses the reasons why Clifford made the above conclusion, the position taken by James in his opposition and how the argument relates to Pascal’s Wager. In Clifford’s first section of his essay, he narrates two storiesRead MoreThe Ideas Of Kierkegaard And Pascal2571 Words   |  11 Pagestruths by examining the ideas of Kierkegaard and Pascal. I will also give a detailed explanation of fideism, show examples of irresponsible fideism and responsible fideism and then argue in favor of responsible fideism; faith fills in the gaps that are left void by reason. A truly authentic faith is not one that is established upon the root of reason and scientific facts, but rather transcends those human accomplishments and challenges to understand God and the world as we know it, through an existentialistRead MoreGod Is No Proof That God Exists?953 Words   |  4 Pagesis no proof that God exists? I’ve met many people who believed in God but not in Hell. In the Bible, Hell is only mentioned a total of five times. Is it irrational to believe in God, Heaven, or Hell? Classical evidentialists would say yes if they believed existence or the design of the universe to be evidence in support of the existence of God. They would say no if they did not see these things as evidence. Reformed epistemologists would say that it is rational to believe in God without the supportRead MoreThe Identity Theory Of Mind With Dualism1259 Words   |  6 Pagesenvironment. The extended mind is the idea that mental states and processes extend outside the head in virtue of the environment playing an active role that is corresponding to internal brain processes. The extended mind thesis says that an agent s mind and associated cognitive processing are neither tied to the skull nor body, but extend into the person’s world. As Clark and Chalmers see it: Where does the mind stop and the rest of the world begin?...We propose to pursue... an active externalism

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Understanding the Value of Creativity in Advertising Free Essays

string(396) " mai hi samjhdari hai†, Bajaj with it all time hit tagline ‘Hamara Bajaj’, or it be Lux with tagline â€Å"filmi sitaron ka saundarya sabun†, Dalda-vanaspati was a impressive success and ruled the perch during its time, the unforgettable Liril campaign, the ad was all about waterfalls, abundant water and the girl splashing about in total abandon singing â€Å"la la la la laaa†\." Understanding the value of Creativity in Advertising Creativity is thinking new things. Innovation is doing new things. † (Theodore Levitt) In today’s media landscape where it’s very difficult to shape consumers attitude and intentions and move them to next level of buying process, advertisers find it even more difficult and challenging to break through the clutter of competing advertisement. We will write a custom essay sample on Understanding the Value of Creativity in Advertising or any similar topic only for you Order Now The advertising industry has experienced dynamic changes over the last several decades. The changes have been good in terms of Technology advancement, Medium and more methods to attract consumers and on Creativity. This study represents how creativity impacted advertising and understanding the value of creativity in advertising through the Review of various literatures. The importance of creativity factor in advertising has got wide recognition by many researchers, practitioner, but there is a miss of true systematic research to define advertising creativity and how it relates to ad effectiveness. The review study discusses some campaigns that have left their strong impression on consumers. The presented review study tries to come up with some evidence of creativity by reviewing expert views, past literature in advertising and marketing. The study discusses different forum on how creativity works, and what makes an ad to travel good or poorly. It summarized the value of creativity in advertising through Expert interviews, published material and related secondary data to understand the logic. Methodology: This study used a review study method to analyze the secondary data observations. David Ogilvy once quoted that â€Å"If it doesn’t sell, it isn’t creative. † In this review study researcher  has analyzed secondary data through the series of interview, expert comments, and live cases of various literatures and through live observations to understand the value of creativity in advertising. The review paper includes a various article, discussion and market insight from the leading marketers, creative director insights about how this promising form of advertising is constantly evolving. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Creativity is seeing something new when you look at something old; it is all heart of civilization and is the driving force of revolution†-David Ogilvy It is an accepted fact that there should be an element of creativity in an advertisement. This creativity is something new, unique, extreme attractive and appealing to the consumers. In fact, advertising itself is a creative process. It is the outcome of long term planning and h ard work on the part of the copy writer creative director who prepares shapes the final copy of advertisement. http://www. baclubindia. com /forum/files/37_37_creativity_in_advertising_project_report. doc In today’s media landscape advertisers find it even more challenging to break through the clutter of competing ads in order to shape consumers attitudes and intentions. A good alternative strategy to greater advertising spending may be more creative advertising. Understanding the fact that creative ideas do not come over night they are required to be developed through systematic thinking. Breakthrough ideas might appear to be instant or impulsive, but they are not. They are based on sound strategy, outstanding visuals and copy, and the correct application of timing and media. The art is in ensuring that all elements of communication work together so that the end result is more powerful and effective. http://crackminds. com/? p=221 There are much bold evidences that significant changes faced by this industry. Some of these changes are good: big ideas, innovative partnerships, interesting new work, that show what advertising can do for brands. Advertising allows you to communicate a salient message to a large group of consumers faster than any other form of communication. It allows you to truly connect with your consumer; it gives you an opportunity to develop an ongoing relationship between the consumer and a brand. At its best, advertising will create a sense of urgency for the consumer, honest awareness and accurate that there are products, places, styles or sensibilities that cry out for attention or action. To do that there are various styles of advertising, a soft sell or a hard sell, a subtle approach or a blatant approach, an informative style, humor or a modern and edgy one. Style will always change: with the product or service you are selling; with the timing of the message and with the medium you are using. But important aspect is how you can engage your consumers to watch that Creative challenge you took with the blend of style. The important thing is finding the right balance between defining a good creative message and execution. The true craft is in identifying ways to interest consumers in what is being offered at the same time justifiable creativity. A creative strategy can put you on the right course, but in a world filled with distractions and clutter you must develop communications that capture consumer attention and interest. The key is delivering the selling point in an interesting, single-minded, non-contrived manner. Some advertising sells brands. Great advertising also builds them. Advertising might, at times, trod on the fine line between creativity and ethical considerations. Creativity makes advertisement popular among the consumers and motivates them to purchase advertisement specific product. The advertising message is received well by the target audience for follow-up action. LEARNING FROM PAST: SOME HERITAGE BRANDS AND RECALL VALUE In India there are some brands who have acquired distinct space in consumer mindset. These brands played very important role in initial marketing era, and managed to become an unforgettable brand for Indian households. These brands have endured the test of time. Colgate Toothpaste, Vimal, Pear’s soap, Mysore Sandal Soap, Woodward’s Gripe Water, Dabur, Amrutanjan balm, Vicco, Pond’s, Surf, Amul and Prestige Pressure Cooker are symbols of heritage brands of India. Some of these brands are represent the Indian culture. Sometimes the brand relies heavily on product and price features, rather than advertising creativity. The recalled values of some of these heritage brands are higher than today’s brands, the Colgate’s Surkasha chakra, Vicco’s jingle â€Å"Vicco turmeric nahi cosmetic† Advice of lalita ji for Surf,† Surf ki khariddari mai hi samjhdari hai†, Bajaj with it all time hit tagline ‘Hamara Bajaj’, or it be Lux with tagline â€Å"filmi sitaron ka saundarya sabun†, Dalda-vanaspati was a impressive success and ruled the perch during its time, the unforgettable Liril campaign, the ad was all about waterfalls, abundant water and the girl splashing about in total abandon singing â€Å"la la la la laaa†. You read "Understanding the Value of Creativity in Advertising" in category "Papers" The ad was major success very much appreciated, at the same time it became the highest selling premium toilet soap in a period of two years. Basically Most of the Heritage brands appeal to many age groups, probably the product /brands is what used by one generation, had been used by the previous generation and is used presently by the current generation. Understanding the success mantra behind these heritage brands can be tough but there are strong evidence stating towards their advertising appeal. The uniqueness of the campaign leads towards the high recalling. The frequency of television commercial was less and during that era there wasn’t much competition and managed with only National TV channel, â€Å"Doordarshan† these brands made their presence heavily on consumers, whereas Today’s as a competitive market emerged in various categories i. e. soaps, shampoos, TV’s fridge, Air conditioner and computers so did the media options to reach more people. THE CAMPAIGNS: HOW CREATIVITY WORKS? The current scenarios focuses that advertising has altered in many ways, now advertising become more and more creative, and getting real. Creativity increases the brand value. There is enough evidence that value for a brand will be formed through creativity. With Pointing on India’s phenomenal growth, it has become even more important for ad agencies and their clients to gear up together to meet challenges that come with such expansion. Creative ideas have no boundaries, Ideas can strike anytime. A successful great creative idea can give brands the required thrust to explore new heights. It is very important that with creativity involved in advertising it should not forget its basic agenda –of informing, convincing, and selling. Creative advertising needs to intelligent, sharp, imaginative to the point and extremely catchy. It must motive people to purchase advertisement product. The message and appeal made should be able to make positive impact on the consumers. The creativity develops new useful ideas which further fulfill the desired requirement. Creativity should focus the attention of the customer on the product and he must feel the urge to have that product for same benefit. This suggests that creative advertising should be able to create demand for the product when it is introduced for the first time. Some of the distinct creative ads impacted hard. VODAFONE’S Creation â€Å"The Zoozoo†: After successfully rebranding â€Å"Hutch to Vodafone† Vodafone Essar Limited, the India-based subsidiary of the global mobile network operator, Vodafone started expanding its presence in pan India. The new avatar of Vodafone is â€Å"Zoozoo† has created a new dimension of creativity. The Zoozoos advertising campaign highlighted the different value added service (VAS) offered by the company. This creative aspect got huge appreciation from the customer and they say you simply Love them and you just can’t ignore them. The Zoozoos were everywhere. The creative ad series of 30 TVCs, were Created by Ogilvy Mather for IPL Season 2. The Zoozoos Coffee Mugs and T-shirts became instant hit in the market. Prior to this what Vodafone did to show the transition from Hutch to Vodafone, ad agency OM launched a rather direct, thematic ad showing the trademark pug in a garden, moving out of a pink colored kennel symbolizing Hutch, and making his way into a red one (the Vodafone color). A more energetic, chirpier version of the ‘You and I’ tune associated with Hutch, plays towards the end, as the super concludes, ‘Change is good. Hutch is now Vodafone’. Public Awareness: A simple public awareness TVC shows a man manipulating a remote control toy car in an office set up. He receives a call and tries to answer it with continuing to manipulate the controls of the car. The car crashes. The message is clear and gets across with no extra layers. Driving while talking on a mobile can cause accidents. ‘IDEA’ Cellular: The ideas of Idea cellular campaign were worked really well. It has been an interesting and almost ‘off the track’ ride for the brand belonging to the Aditya Birla Group. This cellular service used its brand name â€Å"idea† and real social issues to successfully showcasing its message in the consumer’s mind. The campaign shows ugly reality in the social and political arena in India, it’s very unique and different combination of creative aspect, â€Å"What an Idea sir ji† campaigns raised issues related to Caste wars, Education for all, Democracy, health Campaign, ‘walk and talk’. The creativity of ideas worked well, while the team is well aware that most of the solutions it propagates in its ads may seem improbable, but at least it makes people think. The job is done if consumer also starts saying â€Å"what an Idea, Sirji!! There are many creative ads which made a direct entry into customer mind. Camlin’s Permanent Marker made a distinct effect on the consumer it leaves Lowe Lintas, devised a cool concept for the brand to advertise the product. This time this is OOH advertising, the simple but eye-catching hoarding, with the three cut-out men having mechanically-backed moving limbs, trying to wipe off the words written in bright red, also displays the product – the permanent marker. The category of permanent markers are a very low involvement, in such scenario also ad agency had done clutter breaking, and at the same time, something that brings out the essage clearly – here the message being ‘permanent’. † WHAT MAKES ADS TRAVEL GOOD OR BAD; A REALITY CHECK There are numerous factors play roles in determining whether advertisement travel well or poorly. Marketers need to test multiple markets to get a full understanding of an ad’s likely effectiveness, but it becomes equally imperative to understand what it takes to beat the odds and create a truly Creative Advertising. The combination of creativity and the characteristics of ads that travelled well are, Children, Celebrities, Music, Humor and Emotions. In India presence of Celebrities makes a big difference and this can work across markets. True to the phenomena that the famous celebrity can contribute to an ad travelling well but the ultimately success comes down to the power of good copy. Humor, this word will now be associated with advertising for a long time to come. Humor can work greatly well, probably because it was cracked not long ago by the advertising fraternity, Or probably because the otherwise fretting Indian audience feels largely pepped up with humor in ads, and therefore, there are more chances of an ad acquiring mind space. Whatever be it, it’s a formula which now everybody is trying hands on. Some ads are surely worth the effort. Particularly when it comes from visual and music, the examples can be ‘Happydent white’, and the great ‘Amul butter’ print series with â€Å"Amul girl† , ‘Fevicol’ ads, ‘Mentos’ , Vodafone ad Children in the ads can certainly help to travel well it is not simply the cuteness that adds to creative portability, but rather the child’s unique perspective and reaction to an event within the ads. An excellent example is â€Å"Dirt is Good or ‘Daag Achche Hai’† ad for Surf Excel, in which a brother â€Å"fights† the mud his sister fell into. And the recent on which shows a little boy pretending to be a dog in order to make his teacher, who has just lost her dog, smile. Of course, in the process his white uniform gets mud spattered and totally worthy of a Surf Excel wash. This one from Lowe Lintas tugs the heart strings. This campaign sticks to its ‘Daag Achche Hai’ premise. Bank of India showing kid with piggy bank is yet another creative scoop. At the same time advertising that generates an emotional response also has its own benefit, like it can help generate engagement and memorability and it can help the emotions transfer to the brand shaping the brand perception. Dove’s real beauty campaign is perfect example. CREATIVE ADVERTISING: IS THERE A STRONG NEED: Most brands in the same category deliver more or less the same functional benefits and answer the same needs of the consumers. With so many products on the market having the same function, the only way to position a product, service, or company differently from anything else in the same category is through creative development in advertising. Today traditional advertising is losing its sheen. The biggest problem with traditional media is that consumers today have lots of choice for ad avoidance. The fragmentation is very high and there is very less scope of customized message for all. The Indian consumer has changed if we focus on this issue there is a lot more on the menu to choose from. Now the message unlike the past is no longer a one way process. But public opinion is far more mobilized, they have immediate platform for expression. The expert believes that the creativity in advertising could never exist in isolation without a context. The success of final product completely depends on empathy and the relevance of message it intends to deliver. The trigger for ideas and insights must necessarily come from the environment. The new millennium is just decade old, advertising, which is about creating demand, also has undergone a complete transformation. Many things have changed and many things have stayed exactly the same in this industry. The media agencies have witnessed the tremendous growth in skills set. If one critically analyze, â€Å"advertising reflects the mood of the times. The simplistic inform-persuade-sell mode worked beautifully for a long time but once communication became sophisticated, technology entered, there was a paradigm shift. Multi-tasking became the order the day. It is not uncommon to see today’s kids on the mobile while hitting the net, right? So in this age of Youtube, Twitter and Facebook, advertising content has to keep pace. It can’t be as direct, naive and simplistic as it once was. The new-age consumer would dismiss it, straightaway. † For hard-core information and details about products and services that are in the hi-ticket category, the internet provides it all; one doesn’t have to completely depend on advertising. So the job of advertising today is to primarily push the brand in an endearing fashion that triggers the recall factor, and examples discussed indicates that ‘creativity’ stored better recall value. Unlike other businesses, advertising is ultimately a people’s business. Thus creative advertising that sells is the results of three ingredients: people, information, and environment. If you create the appropriate environment for creative people with right information, they can create great advertising. To make the right environment, Ad people must bond together as a ‘team’ not as individual. Therefore, creative advertising that actually sells is the result of ‘team work. ‘ This is one single most important characteristic of creativity in advertising business. Creativity resulting from ‘team work’, effectiveness and communication, these are the key factors in successful advertising campaigns. The Ad agencies must strive for balance between them. How many TVCs of toothpastes, soaps, creams, shampoos, of different companies could were differentiated from one another? Examples are many, all toothpastes promises white teeth fresh breath some shampoos promise Zero Hair Fall, another one promises Zero Dandruff and remaining guarantee strong, shine and strength. With creative ads they can certainly communicate it differently so as to create a distinct brand image in the minds of the consumer,† Consumers often remember and memorize the creative ads than the product; rarely any advertisement makes the product memorable. So understanding the various dimension of advertising creativity is important. To fully understand creativity, one would need to expose what factors are generally held to comprise it. Some dimensions are Novelty, Meaningfulness, Well Craftiness, Positivity, and Humor. How to cite Understanding the Value of Creativity in Advertising, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)

Introduction In 1996, the US congress approved the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which was a federal regulation that explained marriage within the precincts of law. It stated that marriage is a consensual union between one man and one woman. The law was supported by the assembly and was consequently consented by the president. Under the same establishment, no authority could come up with another law recognizing same sex relationships as marriage.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The law extended its rules to other organs of society, including the insurance sector, health sector and the employment sector (Ignatieff 90). However, the court has so far termed the law unconstitutional. The Massachusetts court ruled twice that the law is inapplicable in society. Equally, the California court has also claimed that the law cannot be applied to resolve emerging issues in society. Defendants of the law have moved to court to challenge the recent rulings by the two courts. In 2011, the Obama regime came to the realization that the law was against the wishes and desires of the majority in society. Thus, the administration stated that it would implement it but could not support it in court. Due to this declaration, the House of Representatives vowed to support the law, claiming that it was representing the federal government. This article will examine some of the issues that affect the DOMA law, specifically the court rulings. The court has always opposed the law because it does not represent the interests of the majority in society. To understand the intricacies of the law, the paper will give its background briefly and proceed to give examples of how the court has always frustrated the political elites supporting the DOMA regulations. Background Marriage as a social basic unit was uncontested until the early 1980s when some gay groups raised concerns over their mistreatment in society. The groups wanted to be granted the right to marry their fellow men as sexual partners. In early years, a gay activist had tried to persuade the court to allow him marry a male partner. In Barker v. Nelson, the court ruled that restricting marriage to members of opposite sex was in accordance to the provisions of the US constitution. In 1989, the State Bar Association of California requested the government to allow marriages between people of same-sex.Advertising Looking for research paper on common law? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consequently, the high court ruled that same sex marriage could only happen under special circumstances (Lauren 32). This could only happen due to expenses incurred by individuals in the city and the deteriorating standards of living. In 1993, the Hawaiian Supreme Court observed in Baehr v. Mike case that the state should give detail ed reasons as to why homosexuality should not be allowed in society. In 1996, republicans were much concerned about the rising cases of homosexuality. This encouraged them to draft a bill that would contain the vice. Republican representative, Bob Barr, introduced the bill to the House of Representatives chamber while Senator Don Nickles took it to the senate. Both houses approved the bill but the democrats interpreted it in terms of politics. Clinton approved the bill since there was little time left for campaigns. In 2002, the Republican Party reiterated that it supported the DOMA principles and went a notch higher to claim that the judiciary was against the law (Ishay 51). In 2004, the Bush administration sanctioned DOMA principles and cautioned that the judges were interpreting the law in a way that could easily cause confusion in society. Accordingly, the Bush administration was keen to support the law in court, including the case in Washington termed as In re Kandu, the Florid a case termed as Wilson v. Ake where two women wanted to legalize their marriage, and the Bishop v. Oklahoma case. In 2008 political manifesto, Obama promised Americans to support the repealing of DOMA principles. However, since the issue was still under contention, the Justice Department supported the DOMA rules in Smelt v. United States case. In 2009, human rights groups pushed the president to sponsor a bill that could repeal DOMA principles from the constitution. Consequently, the government decided not to defend the law in court since it believed that it was unconstitutional and went against the wishes of the majority. The government did not send representatives to the Pedersen v. OPM and Windsor v. United States cases. Challenges from the Court Same sex groups tried to change the sections of the DOMA law but the political class thwarted their efforts. For instance, the defendants of the DOMA principles defeated a joint bankruptcy petition of same-sex couples in Washington. In 2009, the US Court of Appeal for the Ninth Circuit affirmed that DOMA was illegal and could not be applied in resolving cases related employment.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The federal authorities declined to offer spousal benefits to one of the complainants because of the DOMA law. In 2008, Golinski filed a case demanding for health benefits from her spouse. The chief Judge declared that she was indeed entitled to marriage benefits, even though the Office of Personnel Management had rejected her claims due to DOMA rules. The office of personnel management refused to pay her since the complainant had violated the DOMA rules. Golinski filed a court case against OPM in another court to enforce the ruling of the previous judge. Even though White, the judge in charge, dismissed her claims, she was given a confirmation to adjust her cas e, which would challenge the illegality of DOMA. In 2011, Paul Clement, the former US Solicitor General acting on behalf of the Bipartisan Legal Advisory Group challenged the legality of DOMA law in court. Clement argued that the definition of marriage was discriminative, something that the Justice Department avoided for years. With this realization, the Department of Justice moved to court to challenge the provisions of DOMA, arguing that the law violated the rights of gays and lesbians. The DOJ argued in the same way as Golinki, claiming that homosexuals have never enjoyed their rights, which are contained in the constitution. The Department of Justice further observed that gays and lesbians receive unfair treatment from societal members. On the other hand, religious groups, which are usually stakeholders in governmental policymaking, argued that the Department of Justice had decided to attack DOMA principles (Okihiro 17). The church claimed that the activities of the jury could c ause conflicts between the church and the state. According to the church, the state had allowed immoral conducts to go on in society. On 22 February 2012, the judge in charge (White) ruled in favor of Golinski, claiming that section 3 of DOMA violates the rights and freedoms of Golinski, as outlined in the Fifth Amendment. The judge further claimed that no authority had the powers to deny another individual his or her rights provided in the constitution (Adam 7). Therefore, the homosexuals had the right to exercise as they wish. In Smelt v. County of Orange case, the DOMA principles were also faulted. The couple wanted to be identified as legal marriage partners but the court refused to recognize their union. The couple filed another court order on 9 March 2009. The couple challenged the legality of DOMA, as well as Proposition 8. Even though the jury dismissed the case, the couple was allowed to marry and could access all federal benefits such as employment, healthcare and many mor e.Advertising Looking for research paper on common law? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion From the above analysis, it can be concluded that DOMA principles were unpopular to the majority of Americans right from the beginning. The law deprives people of their democratic rights and freedoms. In the US, the Fifth Amendment allows individuals to exercise whatever they feel is right for them, as long as they do not interfere with the rights of other individuals. The issue of morality has been debatable since 1980s when AIDS was first tested. Those against homosexuality claimed that gay-sex was not safe as regards to disease transmission. On their part, homosexuals have gone through difficult times trying to lobby the government to accept their wishes. The government has always given them a cold treatment because the majority of policy makers in government believe that homosexuality is immoral. However, the courts have stepped in to help homosexuals redefine the Fifth Amendment, which grants each citizen the right to freedom of expression. The Obama administration r ealized that many people were against the provisions of the DOMA law. The government has consequently decided to distance itself from the DOMA law. Works Cited Adam, Barry. The Rise of a Gay and Lesbian Movement. New York: G. K. Hall Co, 1987. Print. Ignatieff, Michael. American Exceptionalism and Human Rights. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005. Print. Ishay, Micheline. The History of Human Rights: From Ancient Times to the Globalization. 2nd ed. California: University of California Press, 2008. Print. Lauren, Gordon (2003). The Evolution of International Human Rights: Visions Seen. 2nd ed. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003. Print. Okihiro, Gary. Margins and Mainstreams: Asians in American History and Culture. Washington, Dc: University of Washington Press, 1994. Print. This research paper on The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) was written and submitted by user PrinceofOrphans to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.